Milluk dialects

At one time there were at least two (likely more) dialects of Hanis and there were at least 2 (maybe more) dialects of Milluk:  the Lower Coquille and South Slough.  (I speculate that Baldicha – Gregory Point might have been different yet again, as some Indians said they rather isolated themselves).

Unfortunately, little Milluk of any variety was recorded, and only one short list of barely 100 words was collected of Lower Coquille specifically – that was by J. O. Dorsey, who in 1884 interviewed numerous Indians at the Siletz reservation on various western Oregon languages, mostly Athabaskan.  For Lower Coquille, he worked with Coquille Solomon.  I’ve compared Dorsay’s list with whatever matching words I can find from Jacobs’ work with Annie Peterson in 1933 and ’34, and from St Clair’s work with George Barney in 1903 (that is all the Milluk that was recorded, save for a few words in Harrington in 1942 and Swadesh’s recording of the Wasson sisters in 1953).  If you scroll through the table below, excluding where Solomon used some descriptive phrases, you can see where Lower Coquille appears quite similar to the Milluk spoken by Barney and Peterson.  The greatest area of difference appears to be in animal names – see sea otter, skunk, wolf, mouse, muskrat, raccoon, coyote.  I’d be curious to compare Solomon’s answers to Upper Coquille, just to see if there was some linguistic borrowing going on.

I also noticed that Solomon’s word for body resembles the Hanis word for back, pqai.

ENGLISH MILLUK (DORSEY) MILLUK (JACOBS) MILLUK (ST CLAIR) NOTES
man té-mĕçl dέ•mə́ɫ dâ´mêɫ
woman hó-mŭs, or hŭm´-mĭs hú•’məs hū´mes
man, old tu-mûtl´ tú•’mət’ɫ tumî´LKa St Clair added Ka (k’a) ‘person’ on the end
woman, old hu-mĭk’ ´ hú•’mik’ hūmī´K Ka St Clair added Ka (k’a) ‘person’ on the end
woman, young kwēs gwέis gwē´isKa Per Annie, gweis is a young woman from menstruation up to age 19/20, or marriage (And St Clair added Ka – person-on the end)
virgin ûm-mi´ tí-lūtçl “without a man”
boy kwĭtc tí-lūtçl dí•’lút’ɫ dīlōL boy from 5 to 9 years. Sources agree on diiluutl or diiluutl’ for boy (Note in St Clair’s generation L=tl)
girl kwĭtc kwêk’´ gwέ’ɛk’ girl from 5 to 9 years
infant, male ti´-lūtçl Per Annie, k’ilga is Milluk for child of either sex from birth up to age 5 or so. A newborn might be called q’ána k’ílga (in Hanis, q’ána ála)
infant, female kwêk’ Both Jacobs and St Clair list wawa as Milluk (and Hanis) for girl from birth to age 4 or 5
twins a-ts’u´-ti k’ĭ´-lĭ-kŭ t’silkin Atsu=2. Dorsey’s word for twins looks like the phrase ats’u ti k’ilika ‘2 their children’
widower lá-k’ĭs lá•k’is
widow lá-k’ĭs lá•k’is
talker, great kaçl´-ti yēs´
person, silent Ûm-mí tçīs´ This is a phrase that literally means “without talking” or “without speech”
thief wăq-kän yötçl´
head, a sĕl sɛL sâ´(l)
hair, a há-mŭs há•mis hā´mEs
face hĕl hɛl hâ(l)
forehead, his kwû´-tût kwŭn´ gwə́ntgwən
eye, an qwûl´qwûl xwálxwal XwálXwal
eyebrow, an ts’i´-mĭs
ear, an k’qwan-năs´ k’whanas K!ᵘā´nas
ear, (a) perforation in k’qwan-năs´ wă´-qĕ
ear, (an) external opening of the ear k’qwan-năs´tûk-kqa-lá-yu
nose, a çlĭn´-nûq ɫə́n•ɛx̣ ɫînêX
nose, ridge of açl-tĭç´ çlĭn´-nûq
nostril çlĭn´-nûq tûk´-kqa-lá-yu
nose, a septum of k’çu-tci´-te çlĭn´=nûq
nose, perforation of septum k’çu-lci´-te çlĭn´nûq wă´-qĕ
cheek, a k’wû´-tc’a-lá-te-t’ĕt qā´wa (x under the t in -te-)
bone, malar k’wû-tc’a-lá-lĕs
mustache nĭ-tsăs, tsăs dzá•s
mouth yēs yέis yê´īs
tooth kqēts’´-kĕ gâ´tcɣai
tongue lê-ŭ-lu, lêŭ´-lû
salive qwûn´-tcĭs
palate yēs´-ta-kqûl´-lă
chin ts’ĭ-hê´-lŭs t’smɛ ts!öˆ(m)
neck kwûn´-nu-kqwûn´ XwöˆnúXwEn
windpipe tsai´-tsĕ (x written under ‘ts’ in both syllables)
body pûk-k’qai´ his b., kwŭn´-nĭpûk’k’qai
shoulder pûk-k’qai-tĭ t’ɫix̯•ín’nə cîpāL (x written under t)-curiously looks related to word for ‘body’
back ts‘ai ts’ái Xwî´LXwī His b., kwŭn-ts‘ai´
breast of a man te-mĕçl-te kats´ Man-of breasts [x written under both ‘t’ and ‘k’]; that (distant) breast e-yĭm-ĭçl Kats; his or her breast(s) kwŭn´nĭ kats´
breast of a woman hŭm-mĭs´-te kats´ gá•t’s Woman-of breasts [x written under ‘t’ and ‘k’]
nipples kats tŭs´-sĕ mέ•qʷmúq’ʷ Per Annie Peterson, same was word in Hanis.
belly, abdomen kqĕl-í-qûs Kâ´laXâ´hâs glossed as ‘waist’ in St Clair
arm k’ĭç´-lă t’ɫix̯ɛn L!ê´X•în Dorsey’s word looks like the word for hand; St Clair recorded hand as Kᶦê´ɫan (Hanis kihla)
arm, right ka´-tce-nĭc´-tca-te k’ĭç´-lă [x under ‘t’ in syllable te]
arm, left qwût-hīr´-te-k’ĭç´-lă [x under ‘t’ in syllable te]
arm pits k’ĭç´-lăn tûk-kqa-la´-yu g̯íl•ɛk̯’
arm above elbow t’i-yĕq´ his arm above elbow kwŭn-t’i-yĕq´
lung tûs-k’qĕ´ his lung kwŭn´-nu-tûs-k’qĕ´[x under both t’s]
skin (any) tsê´-tçŭs dzέ•t’ɫis sê´Lêɫ his skin kwŭn-tsê´-tçŭs [x under both ts]
girl, not yet reached puberty Wá-wû wá•wa wawā´Ka In St Clair, wawaKa is undoubtedly wawa k’a, where k’a means person; little-girl person. Per Annie Peterson, wawa is a girl from about age 10 up until menarche
girl during menarche tût-ts’ê´-wûs tit’sέ•wəs tᴱtsê´ᵉˆwEs
village yĕts tûk-kalç´ t’ɫdá•yas K!ᴵtā´yas The 1st word in Dorsey’s phrase, yets, is Milluk for ‘house’
wigwam (permanent dwelling) yĕts yέ•ts yê´êts
doorway pĭn´-ĭctc bínictc, bínicdj
Smoke-hole yĕts´tûk-kwan´
fire hĕm-mĭlt‘´ hɛməlt
blaze hĕm-mĭlt‘´i-tĕ lêŭlû “Fire of tongue”
coals, living ai´-yu-wă´ pûk-kûs´
coals, dead tsû´-k’qûl-lĕ´
ashes çlpêk, or çlts‘as k̥tsa•s
smoke Kqwûl-lĕ´ g̣wə́l•έ’ɛs, g̣wə́l•i
water hăp’ ha•p’ hāp!ᴱ
bow of wood kqo-kqwēl´ g̣ug̣wí•l
bow string kqo-kqwēl´tĭctcĕt´ cdjέ•t’ shchet is bowstring in Hanis. Dorsey’s phrase appears to be ko-kweel ti shchet which means bow’s string
arrow wŭt´-ta wusbáya Almost “wĭt´-tā”
arrowhead of stone mĭl´-lûk‘ Hanis – stone arrow points are mi’laq, so this is likely the same word
Fish-spear k’a´-ta tû-kat’l´ dzəma; tgát’ɫ “Indian’s fish-spear” in Dorsay, tgátl’ is spear point
canoe k’a´-tû tçlkú-ûs tɫgwə́ls, tɫgú•s Lkū´s “Indian’s boat” is Dorsey’s phrase – k’a do tlkuus (k’a=person, do=possessive, tlkuus=canoe). Lottie Evanoff recalled word as tɫgú•s˳
one hĭ-tc’i ´ hí•t’ci, hit’ci hī´tcī
two a-ts’u ádzu ā´tsūᴴᵂ (See Umpqua)
three psinçl psə́nɫ psn˳´L (See Alsi)
four ts’a-wa´ dzáwa dzā´wa
five kqŭn-tcĭn´-si g̣ɛnt’cinsi Kantcî´nzi
six tsa-wăq´-kai-ye tcêXKē´a
seven psinçl´-‘ăn tsā´wāXKē
eight a-ts’u´-‘ăn atsō´han
nine hĭtc’i´-‘ăn hîtcī´an
ten t’i´-stcĭ t’í•cdji t!ī´cī
twenty a-ts’u´k’i-u ātsū´-Kīu´ a-ts’u´k’i-u´-k’a=20 people
one hundred hĭ´-tc’i ní-k’ĕ hī´tcī – nî´Kîn literally ‘one stick
two hundred a-ts’u´ ni´-k’ĕ adzu´-nik̯’in
bat (animal) k’a-sá-pá-lĭ páya’na•t’s Per Annie Peterson, pronounced almost the same in Hanis
beaver tĭ´-tcĭn-nă´ ttcína tᵃˆtcî´na
bear, grizzly yŭn-yé-să
bear, black pĕl-ĕl´ pɛlέl pâ´lâl
cat, wild tĭc´-lĕ‘ĕ´ bátg̯i
dog lēk’´-lo yέk’lu yê´Klᵘ Per Annie Peterson, yek’lu means ‘dog’ in Milluk and in Hanis this word means ‘big eater’ (Jacobs 98:138)
deer, mule qwŭts´-hu’ hwútshʷu Xwî´tsxû
elk kĭts kits K•îts
ground hog [mountain beaver] tcăq´-tcŭq tî´lîpī
panther tci-tûk´-k’qai-lûs´ ɫí•tcit ɫī´tcêt
mink Ta-má-rxĕ´, or ûn-ts’ûm´-mĭ-lé-kqa I haven’t found ‘mink’ in Milluk yet in either St Clair or Jacobs; Hanis for mink is puwi.
mouse (house) wĕq´-kûn-yēk’´ bug̣wí•dlɛtɫ
mole k’çltas-tûk´-kqa-la-yu bin pn˳´ “hole in
muskrat săc´-l‘ĕ dzə́n
otter, land ctcĕlt cdjέlt c’tcɛˆ´lt
otter, ocean Ta-ní-sê-nĭ gíyέ’wɛ gīê´’wê
raccoon k’qá-lûc t’sx̣wə́n•aɣ Lottie recalled the word as ts’x̣æ´nnæl
skunk kûn-ná-cl‘ĕ kwî´ltsī two kinds
wolf çlĭm´-û-tŭt-ts‘ú Līmê´Kᵘ
wolf (Prairie, coyote) ts’ûl-lí-k’a yέ•’ləs, yέ’lis yê´êlîs
stick nĭk-k’ĭ´ ník’in “nik’in” used by Annie in Milluk and Hanis as ‘stick, wood, log’. There is another Milluk word she uses, k’íyas, that seems to mean ‘small stick
north pĭl´-tcĭ bέ•l {x under the p}
northeast tc’ĭc´-tcû´-kqa-hais´
east tc’ĭc´-tcĭ
southeast kwŭ´-ci tcû´-kqa-hais´
south kwŭ-cí-tcĭ qʷcíjdɛ
west kĭc´-tcĭ
southwest kĭc´-tcû´-kqa-hais´
northwest pĭl tcû-kqa-hais´ {x under the p}
ocean, salt water păçlt bá•ldí•məs baɫtī´mês Laurie Metcalf, on Swadesh recording, gave the Milluk word for ocean as báɫdicha, and once in Hanis ‘ocean’ was glossed as baldish (rather than the usual baldiimis); in Hanis baldish also means west.
tribe, name of mûl´-lŭk míl•ukʷ mî´lûkᵘ
Indian 1)k’a´-ta, 2)qwûs´-si-yá-k’a k’a Dorsey’s 2nd phrase here appears to be ‘southern people’, gwisiya k’a
white man nĭs´-çle-ne´ ntsɫέ•nέ k’a Annie Peterson – it means “moving people”, appears to be same in Lower Coquille without the k’a (person, people).
horse (white man’s dog) nĭs´-çle-ne´ k’a te-lēk’´lo one man’s horse=hĭ-tc’i´-k’ate nĭs´-çle-nék’ate lēk’lo {x under the t’s}
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About shichils

Just sharing some fun on language
This entry was posted in Vocabulary comparisons, vocabulary words and tagged . Bookmark the permalink.

2 Responses to Milluk dialects

  1. Shirod Younker says:

    Dai S’la Patty! I thought I recall hearing on a recording that “La mak” was the Miluk word for Bone…….Sel gah = egg…..and “gliimuk” = wolf . I got to dig around and find the recording.
    -Tsu tsi wes! Shirod

  2. shichils says:

    If you listen to Swadesh’s recording of Milluk (with Lolly/Laurie and Daisy) bird egg sounds more or less like Hanis maqtlai. It takes her a few seconds to get to salmon egg, she finally settles on “silgwa”. Weirdly neither of these words seem to have turned up in St Clair’s list or Jacobs’ work with AMP (there are weird gaps in vocab there – Jacobs got lots of stories but he never asked her to count from one to 20, or get the cardinal directions, etc etc). Per Annie, tho’, sii – Hwuss is individual salmon eggs, loose eggs, in both Hanis and Milluk. In Hanis a clump of salmon eggs is eleyis, same word as for kidney. Don’t know if that is true of Milluk – maybe that is Lolly’s word silgwa, I don’t now for sure.

    Per St Clair and Jacobs, it would seem South Slu Milluk and Hanis use the word tliimek (dlee – mack) for wolf; Dorsey’s Lower Coquille word he got from Solomon is quite different. La’mak is Hanis and South SLu for bone, any kind of bone.

    I got another post coming (hopefully in near future) on St Clair’s list of Hanis (which he got from Jim Buchanan) and George Barney’s South Slu Milluk – it makes for an interesting comparison – basically, the numerals between the languages are completely different, but the names for animals and plants are mostly the same between the two. I’m not done comparing all the words but so far it looks like about 68% of the lexicon is the same or noticeably similar.

    Anyway it is interesting that South Slu Milluk and Hanis words for animals are so often shared, but Lower Coquille often had different animal words. I need to get my paws on some Upper Coquille vocab and see if LC borrowed from there. Or, other possibility, LC is the more conservative language and South Slu over time borrowed. Or, a mix of both. I dunno. There are also several animal (and one plant & one basket word) words that are shared between Hanis and Lower Umpqua. All I can figure there is prolonged language contact/borrowing. I dunno.

    Anyway, it is all kind of interesting.

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